Previous book projects


   Handbook of Language Contact (second edition)   

   English in Multilingual South Africa   

   English in the German-speaking World   

   Irish Identities. Sociolinguistic Perspectives   

   Keeping in Touch. Familiar Letters across the English-speaking World   

   Cambridge Handbook of Areal Linguistics   

   Listening to the Past. Audio Records of Accents of English   

   Sociolinguistics in Ireland   

   Irish English and World Englishes   

   Researching Northern English   

   A Dictionary of Varieties of English   

   The Sound Structure of Modern Irish   

   Standards of English. Codified Varieties Around the World   

   Areal Features of the Anglophone World   

   Irish English, special issue of English Today   

   Researching the Languages of Ireland   

   Eighteenth-Century English. Ideology and Change   

   Varieties of English in Writing. The Written Word as Linguistic Evidence  

   The Blackwell Handbook of Language Contact   

   The Dialects of Irish. Study of a Changing Landscape  

   Irish English. History and Present-Day Forms   

   Dublin English. Evolution and Change   

   A Sound Atlas of Irish English   

   Legacies of Colonial English. Studies in Transported Dialects  

   Motives for Language Change  

   Collecting Views on Language Change  

   A Source Book for Irish English  

Corpus-linguistic projects

   Corpus Presenter. Software for Language Analysis   

   Early Modern English Medical Texts   

   Electronic Text Edition of Depositions   


Handbook of Language Contact   (Second edition; Wiley-Blackwell, 2020)

Table of Contents

Raymond Hickey

Part I – Contact, contact studies and linguistics

1. Contact explanations in linguistics
Sarah Thomason

2. Contact, bilingualism and diglossia
Lotfi Sayahi

3. Contact and language acquisition
Carmel O’Shannessy and Lucy Davidson

4. Contact and grammaticalization
Bernd Heine and Tania Kuteva

5. Contact and language convergence
Anthony Grant

6. Contact and linguistic typology
Oliver Bond, Helen Sims-Williams and Matthew Baerman

7. Contact and language shift
Raymond Hickey

8. Lexical borrowing
Philip Durkin

9. Contact and code-switching
Penelope Gardner-Chloros

10. Contact and mixed languages
Peter Bakker

11. Contact and sociolinguistic variation
Maya Abtahian and Jonathan Kasstan

12. Contact and new varieties
Paul Kerswill

13. Contact in the city
Heike Wiese<

14, Transnational contact and linguistic landscapes Kingsley Bolton and Werner Botha

Part II – Case studies of contact

15. Contact and early Indo-European in Europe
Bridget Drinka

16. Contact and the history of Germanic languages
Paul Roberge

17. Contact in the history of English
Robert McColl-Millar

18. Contact and the development of American English
Joseph Salmons and Thomas Purnell

19. Contact and African Englishes
Rajend Mesthrie

20. Contact Englishes and creoles in the Caribbean
Edgar W. Schneider and Raymond Hickey

21. Contact and the Romance languages
John Charles Smith

22. Contact in overseas forms of Spanish
Eeva Sippola

23. Contact and Portuguese-lexifier creoles
Hugo Cardoso

24. Contact and the Celtic languages
Joseph Eska

25. Contact and the Slavic languages
Lenore A. Grenoble

26. Contact and the Finno-Ugric languages
Johanna Laakso

27. Language contact in the Balkans
Brian Joseph

28. Turkic language contacts
Lars Johanson, Éva Csató and Birsel Karakoç

29. Contact and Afroasiatic languages
Zygmunt Frajzyngier and Erin Shay

30. Contact and North American languages
Marianne Mithun

31. Contact and Mayan languages
Danny Law

32. Contact and South American languages
Lyle Campbell, Thiago Chacon, John Elliott

33. Contact among African languages
Klaus Beyer

34. Contact and Siberian languages
Brigitte Pakendorf

35. Language contact: the first-generation
Zygmunt Frajzyngier, Natalia Gurian, Sergei Karpenko

36. Contact and indigenous languages in Australia
Debbie Loakes and Jill Vaughan

37. Contact languages of the Pacific
Jeff Siegel


English in Multilingual South Africa. The linguistics of contact and change   (Cambridge University Press, 2020)

Table of Contents

I A framework for English in South Africa

1. English in South Africa - contact and change
Raymond Hickey

2. South Africa in the linguistic modelling of World Englishes
Edgar Schneider

3. South African English, the Dynamic Model and the challenge of Afrikaans influence
Ian Bekker

4. The historical development of South African English: Semantic features
Ronel Wasserman

4. Regionality in South African English
Deon du Plessis, Ian Bekker and Raymond Hickey

5. Does editing matter? Editorial work, endonormativity and convergence in written Englishes in South Africa
Haidee Kruger

II Sociolinguistics, globalisation and multilingualism

7. Language contact in Cape Town
Tessa Dowling, Kay McCormick, Charlyn Dyers

8. Internal push, external pull: The Reverse Short Front Vowel Shift in South African English
Alida Chevalier

9. Youth language in South Africa: The role of English in South African tsotsitaals
Heather Brookes

10. Econo-language planning in South Africa: From localization to globalization
Russell Kaschula

11. Multilingualism in South African education: a southern perspective
Christopher Stroud and Kathleen Heugh

III Language interfaces

12. Present-day Afrikaans in contact with English
Bertus van Rooy

13. Shift varieties as a typological class: The evidence from Indian South African English
Raymond Hickey

14. Language use and language shift in post-apartheid South Africa
Dorrit Posel and Jochen Zeller

15. English prepositions in isiXhosa spaces: Evidence from code-switching
Silvester Ron Simango

16. Aspects of sentence intonation in Black South African English
Sabine Zerbian

17. The development of cognitive-linguistic skills in multilingual learners: a perspective of Northern Sotho-English children
Carien Wilsenach

18. The influence of English on South African Sign Language
Ella Wehrmeyer


English in the German-speaking World   (Cambridge University Press, 2020)

Table of Contents

I The status of English

1. English in the German-speaking world: the nature and scale of language influence
Raymond Hickey

2. English in the German-speaking world: an inevitable presence
Christian Mair (Freiburg)

3. English in Germany and the European context
Sandra Mollin (Heidelberg)

4. English in the former German Democratic Republic
Göran Wolf (Göttingen)

II The transmission of English

5. The history of English instruction in the German-speaking world
Friederike Klippel (Munich)

6. English language (teacher) education in Germany after 1945
Sabine Doff (Bremen)

7. English-medium instruction in German institutions of higher education and its impact on student learning
Susanne Göpferich, Ina Alexandra Machura and Janine Murphy (Giessen)

III Domains and features of English

8. Anglophone communities in Germany: the case of Berlin
Theresa Heyd and Britta Schneider (Berlin)

9. Language, immigrants and identity
Janet Fuller (Groningen)

10. Processes of language contact in English influence on German
Alexander Onysko (Klagenfurt)

11. Persistent features in the English of German speakers
Raymond Hickey (Essen)

12. A speech corpus of German English: Rhoticity and the BATH vowel
Sandra Jansen and Olaf Langstrof (Paderborn)

13. A question of direction: German influence on English
Julia Schultz (Heidelberg)

IV Beyond Germany

14. Varieties of English in the Netherlands and Germany
Alison Edwards (Amsterdam) and Robert Fuchs (Hamburg)

15. English in Austria: policies and practices
Ute Smit and Marlene Schwartz (Vienna)

16. English in Switzerland
Simone Pfenninger (Salzburg) and Richard Watts (Berne)

17. English and German in Namibia
Sarah Buschfeld (Regensburg) and Anne Schröder (Bielefeld)

18. English in German-Speaking Wisconsin and the Aftermath
Joseph Salmons (Wisconsin) and Miranda E. Wilkerson (Columbia, MO) 19. The English ‘infusion’ in Pennsylvania German
Mark Louden (Wisconsin)


Irish Identities. Sociolinguistic perspectives   (with Carolina P. Amador-Moreno, de Gruyter Mouton, 2020)

Table of Contents

1. Linguistic identities in ireland - Contexts and issues
Raymond Hickey and Carolina P. Amador Moreno

2. The Irish language and contemporary Irish identity
John Walsh

3. Language identity and historical bilingualism in Ireland
Liam Mac Mathúna

4.Adjusting language identity: Twentieth-century shifts in Irish English pronunciation
Raymond Hickey

5. Migration experiences and identity construction in nineteenth-century Irish emigrant letters
Carolina P. Amador-Moreno and Nancy E. Avila-Ledesma

6. Perceptions of linguistic identity among Irish English speakers
Stephen Lucek and Victoria Garnett

7. Positive evaluative stance and /t/ frication - a sociophonetic analysis of /t/ realisations in Dublin English
Marion Schulte

8. Intimacy and identity in Irish English: A corpus approach
Brian Clancy

9. Salience and stereotypes. The construction of Irish identity in Irish jokes
Shane Walshe

10. ‘It’s gems like this that make me wish I hadn’t left Ireland!’: Humorous representations of Irish English and their role in diasporic identities
Elaine Vaughan and Máiréad Moriarty

11. Constructing identity in radio advertising in Ireland
Joan O’Sullivan

12. ‘These kids don’t even sound ... Irish anymore’: Representing 'new' Irishness in contemporary Irish fiction
Ana Terrazas-Calero

13. Ulster Scots identity in contemporary Northern Ireland
Göran Wolf


Keeping in Touch. Emigrant Letters across the English-speaking World   (John Benjamins, 2019)

Table of Contents

Part I   The language of emigrant correspondence

1. Mining emigrant correspondence for linguistic insights
Raymond Hickey

2. Wisconsin immigrant letters: German imposition on Wisconsin English
Angela Bagwell, Samantha Litty and Mike Olson

3. ‘I hope you will excuse my bad writing’: shall vs. will in the 1830s Petworth Emigration to Canada Corpus (PECC)
Stefan Dollinger

4. Singular, plural, or collective? Grammatical flexibility and the definition of identity in the correspondence of nineteenth-century Scottish emigrants
Marina Dossena

Part II   The language of the Irish emigrant experience

5. Homesickness, recollections and reunions: Topics and emotions in a corpus of female Irish emigrant correspondence Emma Moreton and Chris Culy

6. ‘I have not time to say more at present’ Negating lexical HAVE in Irish English
Kevin McCafferty

7. ‘Matt and Mrs Connor is with me now. They are only beginning to learn the work of the camp’: Irish emigrants writing from Argentina
Carolina P. Amador Moreno

8. Grammatical variation in nineteenth-century Irish Australian letters
Raymond Hickey

9. ‘[S]eas may divide and oceans roll between but Friends is Friends whatever intervene’. Irish emigrant letters from New Zealand
Dania Jovanna Bonness

Part III   Vernacular correspondence: widening the scope

10. ‘[T]his is all [,] answer soom’ African American vernacular letters from the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries
Lucia Siebers

11.Morphosyntactic features in Earlier African American English: A qualitative assessment of semi-literate letters
Alexander Kautzsch

12. Memoirs from Central America: A linguistic analysis of personal recollections of West Indian laborers in the construction of the Panama Canal
Stephanie Hackert

The Cambridge Handbook of Areal Linguistics

This volume is intended as a focussed and well-structured volume on areal linguistics. This relates to many other areas such as language contact, typology and historical linguistics to mention the three most directly involved. However, areal linguistics is more than each of these and unifies research into how languages come to share features diachronically and the manner in which this takes place. Areal linguistics is thus both an intersection between different subfields of linguistics and a domain of research in its own right.The topicality of areal linguistics is amply documented by the recent literature from a wide range of scholars with a broad spectrum of language expertise. The current volume will offer both a synthesis of the views in this literature and new perspectives for the field in the future.

Length xxviii + 1005 pages
Publication 2017
Publisher Cambridge University Press

Table of contents

Part I: Issues in areal linguistics
Introduction Raymond Hickey
Why is it so hard to define a linguistic area? Lyle Campbell (University of Hawaii, at Manoa)
Areas and universals Balthasar Bickel (Zurich University)
Reassessing sprachbunds: A view from the Balkans Viktor Friedman (University of Chicago) and Brian Joseph (Ohio State)
Areal sound patterns Juliette Blevins (CUNY Graduate Center)
Convergence and divergence in the phonology of the languages of Europe Thomas Stolz and Nataliya Levkovych (Bremen University)
Word prominence and areal linguistics Harry van der Hulst (Connecticut), Rob Goedemans (Leiden University), Keren Rice (University of Toronto)
Semantic patterns from an areal perspective Maria Koptjevskaja Tamm and Henrik Liljegren (Stockholm)
Part II: Case studies for areal linguistics
The Germanic languages and areal linguistics Johan van derAuwera and Daniel Van Olmen (Antwerpen University)
The British Isles Raymond Hickey (University of Duisburg and Essen)
Varieties of English Bernd Kortmann (Freiburg University)
Slavic languages Alan Timberlake (Columbia, New York)
The Caucasus Sven Grawunder (Max Planck Leipzig)
Western Asia: Anatolia Geoffrey Haig (University of Bamberg)
An areal view of Africa Bernd Heine and Anna-Maria Fehn (Cologne University)
Areal contact in Nilo-Saharan Gerrit Dimmendaal (Cologne University)
Niger-Congo languages Jeff Good (SUNY Buffalo)
The Kalahari Basin Tom Güldemann (Max Planck, Leipzig) and Anne Maria Fehn (Cologne)
South Africa and areal linguistics Rajend Mesthrie (Cape Town)
Jharkhand as a ‘linguistic area’ John Peterson (Kiel University)
Sri Lanka and South India Umberto Ansaldo (Hong Kong)
Transeurasian languages Martine Robbeets (Mainz)
Case marking in the northeastern Siberia area Gregory D. S. Anderson (Living Tongues Project)
Languages of China in their East and Southeast Asian context Hilary Chappell (Paris)
The Mainland Southeast Asia area Nick Enfield (Max Planck, Nijmegen)
Southeast Asian tone in areal perspective James P. Kirby (Edinburgh) and Marc Brunelle (Ottawa)
Australian languages Luisa Miceli (University of Western Australia)
Languages of North-West Melanesia Malcolm Ross (Australian National University)
Languages of Eastern Melanesia Paul Geraghty (University of South Pacific)
Native North American Languages Marianne Mithun (Santa Barbara)
Native South American languages (Amazonian languages) Patience Epps (University of Texas), Lev Michael (Berkeley)
The areal distribution of morphosyntactic features in South America Pieter Muysken, Joshua Birchall, Rik van Gijn, Olga Krasnouhova, Neele Müller (University of Nijmegen)

Listening to the Past. Audio Records of Accents of English

The idea behind this volume is to present a number of chapters which look at the earliest audio recordings for a number of varieties of English, probably from the beginning, or at least from the first half, of the twentieth century. The reason for examining such recordings is that they often show accents prior to key developments of the mid-to-late twentieth century in the United States, Canada, England, Scotland, Ireland - to mention just a few anglophone countries where this would apply. The opposite may also be the case, i.e. that early audio records do indeed show features thought to be recent. The speakers on early recordings are often of a fairly advanced age offering apparent-time information for varieties spoken in the late nineteenth century. For the study of non-vernacular varieties such recordings can be invaluable. The quality of early recordings do vary considerably and acoustic analysis is not possible with all of them, though auditory analysis can and will be done.

Length xxxii + 574 pages
Publication 2016
Publisher Cambridge University Press

Table of contents

Analysing early audio recordings Raymond Hickey
I   England, Scotland and Ireland
British Library sound recordings of vernacular speech Jonathan Robinson
Twentieth-century Received Pronunciation: Prevocalic /r/ Anne Fabricius
Twentieth-century Received Pronunciation: Stop articulation Raymond Hickey
London’s Cockney in the twentieth century Paul Kerswill and Eivind Torgersen
The origins of Liverpool English Kevin Watson and Lynn Clark
Tyneside English Dominic Watt and Paul Foulkes
Glasgow and the Central Belt Jane Stuart-Smith and Eleanor Lawson
Early Recordings of Irish English Raymond Hickey
II   The USA, Canada and the Caribbean
Evidence of American Regional Dialects in Early Recordings Matthew Gordon and Christopher Strelluf
New England Daniel Ezra Johnson and David Durian
Upper Midwestern English Thomas Purnell, Eric Raimy and Joseph Salmons
Western United States Valerie Fridland and Tyler Kendall
Analysis of the Ex-Slave Recordings Erik Thomas
Archival Data on Earlier Canadian English Charles Boberg
Canadian Raising in Newfoundland? Sandra Clarke, Paul De Decker and Gerard Van Herk
The Caribbean: Trinidad and Jamaica Shelome Gooden and Kathy-Ann Drayton
III   West and South Africa, South Atlantic, Australia and New Zealand
Early recordings from Ghana Magnus Huber
Earlier South African English Ian Bekker
Early 20th century Tristan da Cunha h'English Daniel Schreier
Open vowels in historical Australian English Felicity Cox and Sallyanne Palethorpe
Early New Zealand English: the closing diphthongs Márton Sóskuthy, Jennifer Hay, Margaret Maclagan, Katie Drager and Paul Foulkes


Sociolinguistics in Ireland

This volume offers an overview of all essential matters relating to language and society in Ireland. This includes information on both the English and the Irish languages in Ireland in a holistic sense, i.e. encompassing both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. The book will be up-to-date and topical, reporting on the latest research into language in Ireland but with the additional focus of sociolinguistics to complement and enhance perspectives already offered in the field.

Length xxii + 420 pages
Publication February 2016
Publisher Palgrave Macmillan

Table of contents

I.   Language and society in contemporary Ireland
English in Ireland: development and varieties Raymond Hickey (Essen)
The Irish language in present-day Ireland Brian Ó Catháin (Maynooth)
The Irish language and the media Iarfhlaith Watson (UCD, Dublin)
Irish-English code-switching: a sociolinguistic perspective Siobhán Ní Laoire (DIT, Dublin)
Language use in Ireland Anne Barron and Irina Pandarova (Lüneburg)
II.   Language and society in Irish history
Language in medieval Ireland Patricia Ronan (Lausanne)
From Early Modern Ireland to the Great Famine Liam Mac Mathúna (UCD, Dublin)
Language shift and language revival in Ireland Regina Uí Chollatáin (UCD, Dublin)
Language, politics and identity in Ireland Tony Crowley (Leeds)
Emigrant letters Kevin McCafferty (Bergen)
Society, language and Irish emigration Raymond Hickey (Essen)
III.   Sociolinguistic interfaces
Irish language acquisition Tina Hickey and Nancy Stenson (UCD, Dublin)
Irish writing in English Carolina Amador Moreno (Extremadura)
Irish society as portrayed in Irish films Shane Walshe (Zurich)
Translation and society in Ireland 1900-present Kathleen Shields (Maynooth)
Sociolinguistic information in Irish English corpora Elaine Vaughan and Brian Clancy (Limerick)


Irish English and World Englishes

Special issue of World Englishes (36.2)

Ed. Raymond Hickey and Elaine Vaughan. John Wiley 2017.

Table of Contents

Raymond Hickey and Elaine Vaughan

Irish English in the anglophone world
Raymond Hickey

Irish English in emigrant letters
Kevin McCafferty

The attitudes of recently-arrived Polish migrants to Irish English
Chloé Diskin, Vera Regan

Vague category markers as turn-final items
Elaine Vaughan, Michael McCarthy, Brian Clancy

The speech act of ‘offers’ in Irish English
Anne Barron

The present perfect in Irish English
John Kirk

The representation of Irish English in literature
Carolina Amador-Moreno and Ana María Terrazas

Vernacularization and authenticity in radio advertising in Ireland
Joan Sullivan and Helen Kelly-Holmes

The language of Irish films
Shane Walshe

Researching Northern English

In the past number of years there have been a number of workshops on Northern English at various universities in the North of England and in Scotland. At these meetings much original research has been presented by colleagues working on aspects of Northern English and on a wide range of varieties in the North of England. This volume is intended to reflect this research and present a platform in print where younger scholars can present the fruits of their research, thus providing a general overview of this vibrant area of varieties research. The topics covered range from issues of language and culture, variation and change in the North of England and its relationship to neighbouring areas to possible influence on other varieties of English in recent history.

Length x + 483 pages
Publication December 2015
Publisher John Benjamins

Table of contents

I.   The North of England: Language and Culture
The North of England and Northern English Raymond Hickey (University of Duisburg and Essen)
The enregisterment of Northern English Joan Beal (University of Sheffield)
Clive Upton (University of Leeds) The North of England and the dialects of England
Northern English and historical syntax Julia Fernandez Cuesta (University of Seville)
Northern English and historical phonology Hilary Prichard (University of Pennsylvania)
Northern English lexis and spelling Javier Ruano-García & Pilar Sánchez-García (University of Salamanca)
Northern English in the context of anglophone varieties Raymond Hickey (University of Duisburg and Essen)
Syntactic features of Northern English Isabelle Buchstaller (University of Leipzig) & Karen Corrigan (University of Newcastle)
II.   Locations within the North: Variation and change
Newcastle Adam Mearns (University of Newcastle)
Sunderland Lourdes Burbano-Elizondo (University of Edgehill)
Carlisle and Cumbria Sandra Jansen (University of Duisburg and Essen)
Sheffield Katie Finnegan
Middlesbrough Carmen Llamas (University of York)
Lancashire William Barras (University of Aberdeen)
Manchester Maciej Baranowski & Danielle Turton (both University of Lancashire)
Merseyside Helen Faye West (University of York) & Philip Tipton (University of Salford)
III.   II. The North: Transitions and Borders
Borders and boundaries in the North of England Chris Montgomery (Sheffield University)
The East Midlands Natalie Braber (Nottingham University) & Nicholas Flynn (University of York)
The West Midlands Esther Asprey (Birmingham Aston University)
Between the North and South: The Fen Country David Britain (University of Bern)
The north above the North: Scotland and Northern English Warren Maguire (University of Edinburgh)
Non-native Northern English Rob Drummond (Manchester Metropolitan University)

Publisher’s URL: Wiley-Blackwell: Dictionary of Varieties of English

Length xxiv + 431 pages
Publication January 2014
Publisher Wiley-Blackwell

This book is a linguistic dictionary providing coverage of forms of English (varieties) in their geographic and historic context. As is obvious at first glance, the English language is found throughout the entire world both as a native language (spoken by descendants of settlers who emigrated from the British Isles in the past few centuries) and as a second language in countries which generally were former colonies of England, e.g. many states in South and South-East Asia as well as parts of Africa (these countries have a very active set of varieties which show many developments which are of linguistic interest). The term ‘variety’ covers all types of English spoken in the two groups just mentioned. There is also an historic dimension to this subject as the rise of early settler varieties, for instance in North America (in the later USA and Canada) and in the Caribbean, dates back to the early seventeenth century.

One is thus dealing with a broad range of language types characterised by various scenarios including continuity of settler English, new dialect formation, dialect mixture, bilingual situations resulting from language contact, to mention just a few.

Importantly, the study of varieties of English includes various soiolingjuistic perspectives, especially in urban settings. The development of language, triggered by factors such as class, network affiliation, ethnic grouping, is a central topic in variety studies and is reflected in the coverage of the present dictionary.

The Sound Structure of Modern Irish

The Sound Structure of Modern Irish contains a comprehensive description of the phonology of Irish. Based on the main forms of the language, it offers an analysis of the segments and the processes in its sound system. Each section begins with a description of the area of phonology which is the subject - such as stress patterns, phonotactics, epenthesis or metathesis - and then proceeds to consider the special aspects of this subject from a theoretical and typological perspective.

The book pays particular attention to key processes in the sound system of modern Irish. The two most important of these are palatalisation and initial mutation, phenomena which are central to Irish and the analysis of which has consequences for general phonological theory.

The other main emphasis in the book is on a typological comparison of several different languages, all of which show palatalisation and/or initial mutation as part of their systems. The different forms of Celtic, Slavic languages, Romance dialects and languages along with languages such as Finnish, Fula, Nivkh and those in Central Vanuatu are considered to find out how processes which are phonetic in origin (external sandhi) can become functionalised and integrated into the morphosyntactic system of a language.

Length xii + 481 pages
Publication April 2014
Publisher de Gruyter Mouton

Table of contents

I.   Introduction
1.   Historical background
2.   Dialects of Irish today
II.   The Phonological Framework
1.   Sound inventory
2.   Phonotactics
3.   Stress in Irish
III.   The Morphonology of Irish
1.   Origins and development of initial mutation
2.   Initial mutation in Modern Irish
3.   Organisation and principles
4.   Origins and development of palatalisation
5.   A comparison of palatalisation in Russian and Irish
IV.   Typological Viewpoints
1.   Introduction
2.   Scottish Gaelic
3.   Welsh
4.   Breton
5.   Italian
6.   Spanish
7.   Danish
8.   Baltic Finnic
9.   Nivkh
10.   Fula
11.   Southern Paiute
12.   Central Vanuatu languages
13.   Conclusion
V.   Appendixes
1.   The transcription of Irish
2.   Scottish Gaelic
Subject index
Language index
Name index

Standards of English – Codified Varieties around the World

Publisher’s URL: Cambridge University Press: Standards of English

The current volume is concerned with the standards of English found throughout the anglophone world with how these standards arose and with their relationship to other forms of English, often in other larger countries, notably Britain or America. The history, present-day situation and status of the standard in each country / region is to be considered in a dedicated chapter by an internationally renowned scholar.

Length xxii + 421 pages
Publication 2012
Publisher Cambridge University Press

Table of contents

Raymond Hickey Standard English and standards of English
Ingrid Tieken-Boon van Ostade The codification of English in England
Clive Upton Standard English in present-day England
Jane Stuart-Smith and John Corbett Standard Scottish English
Raymond Hickey Standard Irish English
William Kretzschmar and Charles Meyer American Standard English
Charles Boberg Standard Canadian English
Hubert Devonish and Ewart A. C. Thomas Standards of English in the Caribbean
Sean Bowerman Standard South Africa English
Ulrike Gut Standards of English in West Africa
Josef Schmied Standards of English in East Africa
Claudia Lange Standards of English in South Asia
Lisa Lim and Umberto Ansaldo Standards of English in South-East Asia
Felicity Cox and Sallyanne Palethorpe Standard Australian English
Elizabeth Gordon Standard New Zealand English
Manfred Krug and Anna Rosen Standards of English in Malta and the Channel Islands
Carolin Biewer Standards of English in the South Pacific
Daniel Schreier Varieties resistant to standardisation
Raymond Hickey Timelines, glosary, maps

Areal Features of the Anglophone World

Publisher’s URL: De Gruyter Mouton: Areal Features of the Anglophone World

This volume is concerned with examining features of non-standard, vernacular English which show an areal distribution, i.e. which cluster geographically across the world. Areal features are thus found in regions - no matter what size - and are shared by some if not all the varieties of English present in these regions. There may, however, be other languages interacting with English in these regions, either historically or at present, and this interaction is to be considered as well.

Length viii + 502 pages
Publication 2012
Publisher Mouton de Gruyter

Table of contents

Raymond HickeyAreal features of the anglophone world
Case studies
David Britain English in England
Warren Maguire English and Scots in Scotland
Raymond Hickey English in Ireland
Matthew Gordon English in the United States
Jeffrey P. Williams English in the Caribbean
Magnus Huber and Thorsten Brato English in Africa
Umberto Ansaldo and Lisa Lim English in Asia
Pam Peters and Kate Burridge English in Australia and New Zealand
Devyani Sharma Shared features in New Englishes
Feature complexes
J. K. Chambers Global features of English vernaculars
Daniel Schreier Phonological inventories
Liselotte Anderwald Negation in varieties of English around the world
Kerstin Lunkenheimer Tense and aspect
Lukas Pietsch Verbal concord
Susanne Wagner Pronominal systems
Peter Siemund, Georg Maier and Martin Schnweinberger Reflexive and intensive self-forms
Stephan Gramley Vocabulary
Klaus P. Schneider Pragmatics


Irish English in Today’s World

Special issue of English Today, Vol. 27, No. 2

Ed. Raymond Hickey

Cambridge University Press, June 2011.

Table of Contents

Present and future horizons for Irish English

Victories fastened in grammar: historical documentation of Irish English

‘Irish isn't spoken here?’ Language policy and planning in Ireland

What is Irish Standard English?

Grammatical variation in Irish English

The pragmatics of Irish English

Ireland in translation

Teaching and Irish English

Researching the Languages of Ireland

Ed. Raymond Hickey

x + 351 pages

Uppsala University Press, September 2011.

Table of Contents


Raymond Hickey
Gender in Modern Irish

Graham Isaac
The designation of Old Irish as a ‘Celtic’ language

Liam MacMathúna
Earthquakes and other landscape movements

Séamus MacMathúna
Early Language Acquisition in the Celtic Languages

Erich Poppe
Latin and Latin Learning in Fifteenth-Century Ireland

Patricia Ronan
More on the Origin of Irish and Welsh Continuous Periphrasis

Arndt Wigger
On defective verbal nouns in Modern Irish


Karen Corrigan
The ‘Art of Making the Best Use of Bad Data’

Una Cunningham
Echoes of Irish in the English of Southwest Tyrone

Kevin McCafferty
English grammar, Celtic revenge?

Peter Siemund
It-clefts in Irish English

John Kirk
The cultural context of ICE-Ireland

Raymond Hickey
Ulster Scots in Present-day Ireland

   Eighteenth-Century English. Ideology and Change

Eighteenth-Century English

Ideology and Change

Ed. Raymond Hickey

Cambridge University Press, June 2010, 426 + xvi pages.

The aim of this book has been to bring together a group of those scholars working on aspects of late modern English. The volume is divided into thematic sections which deal with issues central to English in the eighteenth century. It begins with chapters on linguistic ideology and the grammatical tradition in England. This is connected to the rise of prescriptivism and also to the contribution of women to the writing of grammars. A further section looks at the interactions of writers at this time, at the manner in which they influenced each other and at modes of politeness in eighteenth-century discourse. The issue of grammatical variation, including that on a regional and dialectal level, is discussed in an ensuing section. The volume also contains an overview chapter on English lexicography in the eighteenth century and some chapters which examine developments in English which reached into the nineteenth century.

Book on Cambridge University Press website

Table of Contents

Attitudes and concerns in eighteenth-century English

Prescriptivism and the suppression of variation

Women’s grammars

Eighteenth-century women and their norms of correctness

Lowth as an icon of prescriptivism

Queeney Thrale and the teaching of English grammar

Coalitions, networks, and discourse communities in Augustan England:
The Spectator and the early eighteenth-century essay

Contextualizing eighteenth-century politeness: social distinction and metaphorical levelling

Expressive speech acts and politeness in eighteenth-century English

Variation and change in eighteenth-century English

Variation in sentential complements in eighteenth- and nineteenth-century English: a processing-based explanation

Nationality and standardisation in eighteenth-century Scotland

English in eighteenth-century Ireland

Changes and continuities in dialect grammar

‘Be pleased to report expressly’: the development of a public style in late modern English business and official correspondence

Registering the language - dictionaries, diction and the art of elocution


Late Modern English language studies

Timeline for the eighteenth century


   Varieties of English in Writing

Varieties of English in Writing

The Written Word as Linguistic Evidence

Ed. Raymond Hickey

John Benjamins, October 2010, 378 + x pages.

The present volume has two major and related aims, one methodological and one documentary (1) Methodological aim: To discuss in the light of recent insights and methods in linguistics the problems and opportunities associated with documents of different varieties throughout the anglophone world when used as linguistic evidence. Such documents can be of a literary nature (as with dialect portrayal, for instance) or they can be non-fictional, for example with diaries, travelogues, official records, etc. (2) Documentary aim: To document the history of varieties in the anglophone world (both in the British Isles and overseas) and show how written documents have contributed to our picture of the emergernce of these varieties.

The concern of the current volume will primarily be with the assessing of written texts - both fictional and non-fictional - as linguistic evidence for earlier forms of varieties of English. The question of how genuine written representations are will be a central theme and the techniques and methodology which can be employed to determine this will be discussed up front.

Book on John Benjamins website

Table of contents

Raymond Hickey Linguistic evaluation of earlier texts
Part I: General and the British Isles
Claudia Claridge and Merja Kytö Non-standard language in earlier English
Philip Durkin Assessing non-standard writing in lexicography
Katie Wales Northern English in writing
Gunnel Melchers Southern English in written documents
Derrick McClure The distinctiveness of Scots: Perceptions and reality
Raymond Hickey Irish English in early modern drama: The birth of a linguistic stereotype
Kevin McCafferty Writing Ulster Irish
Part II: North America and the Caribbean
Lisa Minnick Dialect literature and English in the USA
Stefan Dollinger Written sources for Canadian English
Bettina Migge and Susanne Mühleisen Earlier Caribbean English and Creole in writing
Part III: The Southern Hemisphere
Daniel Schreier and Laura Wright Earliest St Helenian English in writing
Kate Burridge Linguistic evidence for early Australian English
Elizabeth Gordon Written evidence of early New Zealand English pronunciation

   The Blackwell Handbook of Language Contact

   Dialects of Irish. Study of a Changing Landscape

The Dialects of Irish

Study of a Changing Landscape

Raymond Hickey

Mouton de Gruyter, May 2011, 505 + x pages.

The Dialects of Irish offers a comprehensive overview of forms of modern Irish within a general linguistic framework. Starting with information on the sociolinguistics of modern Irish and on the overall sound system of the language, it then proceeds with a tripartite division of the present-day language into northern, western and southern Irish. It gives specific information on the features of each dialect and considers many sub-divisions, using maps and tables to illustrate clearly what is the subject of discussion. There are several innovations in the book, such as a system of lexical sets which facilitate the description and analysis of variation and change in modern Irish.

The data for the book stems from recordings of more than 200 speakers and all the statements made about the structure of Irish are based on native speakers' speech samples. These are supplied on an accompanying DVD with a software interface which allows users to quickly orient themselves among the varieties of Irish via clickable maps.

A number of further issues are focused on in the book, such as the possibility of dialect reconstruction and the use of place-name evidence for determining the earlier distribution of Irish. Additional historical and background information is provided so that scholars and students without any previous knowledge of the language can readily grasp the themes and issues discussed.


I Introduction


The Irish language today


The sound system of Irish




Phonological studies


The dialects of Irish




Collecting data on Irish dialects


Features of dialects


The prosody of Irish


Dialect reconstruction


Further variation




History of Irish


The orthography of Irish


The transcription of Irish


Samples of Spoken Irish







   Irish English. History and Present-Day Forms

Irish English

History and present-day forms

Raymond Hickey

Cambridge University Press, September 2007, 503 pages.

This book offers an overview of the history of Irish English from the late Middle Ages to the present-day. It deals with the English language in both the south of Ireland and Ulster (which contains Northern Ireland). Apart from presenting a factual overview of Irish English, emphasis has put been on issues which are of general interest to scholars in the field of variety studies. So there are chapters on current sociolinguistic developments in the capital Dublin as well as sections on language contact and shift in which various linguistic models are examined critically and evaluated. The use of Irish English in literature and the transportation of varieties of Irish English overseas during the colonial period are also dealt with.

Table of Contents




History I: The coming of the English


External developments


Languages in medieval Ireland


A singular document: the Kildare Poems


The antiquarian temptation: Forth and Bargy


History II: The settlement of Ulster




Scottish and English immigration


Ulster Scots


Ulster English


The emergence of Irish English


Language shift in Ireland


The case for contact


Structural features of Irish


The grammar of Irish English


Retention and convergence


Ireland as a linguistic area


Present-day Irish English


The development of pronunciation


Rural Irish English


Supraregional Irish English










The Irish English lexicon


The pragmatics of Irish English


Transportation overseas


The Irish in Britain








The United States


Ulster Scots in the United States


19th century emigration


African American English






Mainland Canada


The Caribbean


The case of Barbados




New Zealand


Appendixes + Glossary


References + Index

   Dublin English. Evolution and Change

Dublin English

Evolution and change

Raymond Hickey

John Benjamins, Amsterdam and Philadelphia, 2005, 270 pp. + CD-ROM

The intention of the present book is twofold. On the one hand it offers a description of the history of English in the capital of Ireland since it was first introduced to Dublin in the late 12th century and on the other hand the book describes the present-day varieties of English to be found in the city. All the historical data which is available is presented for linguistic analysis with a view to throwing light on Dublin English. This material consists in the main of emigrant letters and local letters by Dubliners and literary attestations of Irish English by Dublin writers as well as prescriptive comments on language in the capital by various authors such as the elocutionist Thomas Sheridan. The synchronic section of the book deals with the current changes in pronunciation which have characterised the development of Dublin English in the past decade or two. To this end the data from a broad-based survey of Dublin English is presented and analysed. The shifts in Dublin English are also placed in a wider context and compared with similiar contemporary changes in other major anglophone cities. The book is accompanied by a CD-ROM which contains a suite of powerful programmes and all the recordings of Dublin English used for the current book. The data consists of over 300 sound files, over 200 survey questionnaires and informants' maps and over 100 spoken assessment tests. By means of the supplied software users can examine the original data on their PC or Macintosh computer. The programmes offer an easy gateway to the data in the form of a tour of Dublin English as well as much background information on English in Dublin along with overview information on the language in the rest of Ireland. The software can be used in Windows programme form (with installation to hard disk) or in Java form (without any installation).



I Investigating Dublin English

1 Introduction
1.1 Matters of terminology
   1.2 The city of Dublin
   1.3 Classifying Dublin English

2 Collecting data
2.1 Change in Dublin English: Collecting the data
   2.2 Initial methods used
   2.3 Conducting the interviews
   2.4 Results of the data collection
   2.5 Data and figures
   2.6 Increasing the data base
   2.7 Aim of the recordings
   2.8 Organisation of the recordings
   2.9 Obtaining recordings for Dublin English
   2.10 Sample sentences with lexical sets
   2.11 Free text
   2.12 Word list

II English in present-day Dublin

1 Introduction
   1.1 How can one tell a moderate Dublin accent?
   1.2 The status of Received Pronunciation
   1.3 The local Dublin speech community
   1.4 Features of local Dublin accents
   1.5 Additional data for local Dublin English
   1.6 Markers of local Dublin English

2 Recent changes in Dublin English
   2.1 Before and after the changes
   2.2 In the beginning was Dublin 4
   2.3 Why ‘Dortspeak’ failed
   2.4 Demotic developments: the 1990s vowel shift
   2.5 Details of the vowel shift
   2.6 Arguments for and against the shift
   2.7 Phonological interpretation
   2.8 Participants in the vowel shift
   2.9 Propagation of sound change
   2.10 More on dissociation
   2.11 The New Pronunciation
   2.12 Irish, British and American English
   2.13 Uncontentious features in Dublin English
   2.14 The spread of new Dublin English
   2.15 The gender issue

3 Attitudes to Dublin English
   3.1 Assessment of speaker accents
   3.2 Assessment results
   3.3 Perception of dialect regions
   3.4 Results of dialect divisions
   3.5 Evaluation of dialect regions

4 The wider context
   4.1 English in Belfast
   4.2 English in Derry
   4.3 Dublin and northern cities
   4.4 Dublin and London
   4.5 New towns and new suburbs
   4.6 Non-native Dublin English

5 The grammar of Dublin English
   5.1 Morphology
   5.2 Syntax
   5.3 A Survey of Irish English Usage

6 The vocabulary of Dublin English
   6.1 Studies of the Irish English lexicon
   6.2 Treatment of English lexis
   6.3 Productive morphology
   6.4 Vernacularity in Dublin English
   6.5 Loanwords from Irish
   6.6 Phrases and expressions

7 Placenames in Dublin

III Reaching back in time

1 The history of English in Ireland
   1.1 The coming of the English
   1.2 Spread of English
   1.3 The situation in medieval Ireland
   1.4 Renewed dominance of English
   1.5 The eighteenth century
   1.6 The nineteenth century

2 Letters as linguistic evidence
   2.1 18th century letters
      2.1.1 The Mahon letters
   2.2 19th century letters
      2.2.1 The Owens Letters

3 Literary texts as linguistic evidence
   3.1 The plays of Dion Boucicault
   3.2 The plays of Sean O’Casey

4 Prescriptive comments by Dublin authors
   4.1 Thomas Sheridan
      4.1.1 Sheridan’s system of pronunciation
      4.1.2 Non-standard vowel values
      4.1.3 Conditioned realisations
      4.1.4 Word stress
      4.1.5 Summary
   4.2 Swift and Irish English

5 Early modern Dublin English
   5.1 Parodies of Irish English
      5.1.1 Stereotypical speech features
   5.2 Municipal records from Dublin

6 Medieval Irish English
   6.1 The Kildare Poems
   6.2 The dialect of Fingal
   6.3 The dialect of Forth and Bargy

7 Supraregionalisation
   7.1 Vernacularisation
   7.2 Extinct features
   7.3 Retention of conditional realisations
   7.4 Supraregional variety as standard

IV Guide to the CD-ROM
   1.1 The Discover Dublin English programme
   1.2 Other programmes in the suite
   1.3 Troubleshooting file
   1.4 Java version

V Lexical sets for Dublin English

VI Glossary




Sound files referred to in book

   A Sound Atlas of Irish English

A Sound Atlas of Irish English

Raymond Hickey

Berlin/NewYork: Mouton de Gruyter, December 2004, 171 pages and DVD.

A Sound Atlas of Irish English offers a unique and comprehensive audio overview of the English language as spoken in present-day Ireland. In all, there are over 1,500 recordings which were made between the mid 1990s and 2002. The recordings cover both genders and all ages (from 11 to over 80). Each county of the 32 in Ireland is represented and there is a proper spread according to population. The capitals, Belfast and Dublin, have large numbers of speakers, making the sound atlas particularly suitable for sociolinguistic work within a variationist framework.

All the data can be accessed easily from the supplied DVD by means of a Java application which allows the user to browse among the data by county and to view and listen to lexical set realisations and free text. The DVD contains much additional information about Irish English — varieties, historical development, current distribution, etc. — as does the accompanying book which offers many details concerning specific features of forms of Irish English and information on the methodology used for the sound atlas. The software will run under any version of Windows as well as on Macintosh computers and under the Linux operating system. It may be, but need not be, installed to the hard disk of a computer.

A Sound Atlas of Irish English has basically a twofold purpose. It is on the one hand a research tool for those scholars who are interested in Irish English from an internal point of view, so to speak, and on the other hand it is a source of reliable and up-to-date information on the kinds of English spoken in Ireland and which can be used for comparative work, e.g. when looking at the sources of features found in varieties around the world, such as US English, Canadian, Australian/New Zealand English and the like. The sound atlas can be used by academics and students alike. The latter group is especially relevant in this context. With the sound atlas, students can gain a much clearer picture of Irish English by listening to the sound files.

The sound atlas is supplemented by A Survey of Irish English Usage which consists of over 1,000 questionnaires from speakers with information on the acceptance of grammatical features specific to Irish English. The data of the survey, along with analytical software, is contained on the DVD and discussed in the book.

From the preface to the book

This sound atlas offers a comprehensive audio overview of the English language as spoken in present-day Ireland. The data for the atlas was collected over several years during which the author travelled throughout the entire Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland and collected anonymous samples of speech from representative speakers in both urban and rural settings and across at least three generations. The speakers in the sample are identified by gender, geographical location in Ireland and approximate age. The recordings were made on cassette tapes which were then digitised and compressed using the well-known MPEG Layer-3 method of sound file compression (often abbreviated to just ‘MP3’). The material recorded for each speaker consisted of at least a list of sample sentences all of which illustrate the lexical sets which are of interest in both northern and southern Irish English (see section II 5.1. Lexical sets for Irish English below). In many cases speakers also read a sample text which lasted approximately a minute and a half. This illustrates a more relaxed style as it is a continuous piece of text. Some speakers furthermore read a list of words which contain sounds critical for the present-day distribution of, and ongoing changes in Irish English. In all, there are over 1,500 recordings.

On the DVD accompanying this manual all sound files are to be found as well as appropriate software for listening to the recordings. In addition there is much information about Irish English, an introduction to the phonology of this variety, as well as various items of background information which might be of interest to users of the atlas. Particular attention should be paid to the extracts of sound files in which many of the salient features of Irish English are discussed and illustrated. Together with the overview of Irish English, this offers an appropriate first orientation to the material on the CD and to Irish English in general.

To install A Sound Atlas of Irish English you should run the setup program to be found in the root directory of the DVD. The setup procedure is similar to that for any other programme running in a Windows environment. Users of the DVD should be aware that it requires approximately 3.5 GB (3,500 MB) of free space on your hard disk if you choose to install the sound files. However, if you choose not to copy the sound files to your hard disk, then only 160 MB are required. You will then require the DVD to listen to the files. The programs and the data can be removed completely if you wish to do so at some later date. To listen to the recordings you will require a functioning soundcard in your computer with speakers or headphones attached.

On the accompanying DVD there is also a so-called Java version of the sound atlas. Basically, this consists of software written in the programming language used for files in the internet. The great advantage here is that this programme will run under Windows and also on an Apple Macintosh computer (as well as under the Linux operating system and older versions of Windows). To start the Java version double click on the file “000_Sound_Atlas.htm” (the first file in the root directory of the DVD) from within your file manager (on the desktop of the Macintosh or in the Windows Explorer). A programme will start showing a tree with options on the left of the screen and a window with information on the right corresponding to the currently active node. The opening screen shows a map of Ireland on the right with a list of the 32 counties. Choose a county from a list of sound files from speakers of that county and click on the ear symbol to listen to a recording. Users of the sound atlas should bear in mind that the Java version does not contain all the options present in the dedicated software written as a gateway to the atlas and which can be accessed by going through the setup procedure as described in the previous paragraph. But there are advantages to the Java version, not only that it is independent of computer type, as just mentioned, but also that it will run without installing any software or copying files from the supplied DVD to your computer.


I Data collection and analysis

1.Background to A Sound Atlas of Irish English
1.1. The beginnings with Dublin English
1.2. Conducting the interviews
1.3. Results of the data collection

2. Recordings for A Sound Atlas of Irish English
2.1. Aim of the recordings
2.1.1. Capturing variation
2.2. Organisation of the recordings
2.2.1. Getting low noise recordings

3. Analysing the recording exchanges
3.1. Minimising social distance for recordings
3.2. Effort and intrusion
3.3. Asking permission
3.4. Appeals for participant help
3.5. Righteous indignation and survey fatigue
3.6. Face of the informants

4. Background to A Survey of Irish English Usage

II The English language in Ireland

1. Introduction
1.1. Dialect divisions
1.2. Historical background
1.3. The medieval period
1.4. The early and late modern period
1.5. Language shift in early modern Ireland
1.6. Contact Irish English
1.7. Supraregionalisation
1.8. Vernacularisation

2. Varieties of Southern Irish English
2.1. The East Coast
2.2. The South-West and West
2.3. The Midlands

3. Varieties of Northern Irish English
3.1. Terminology
3.2. Ulster Scots
3.3. Delimiting Ulster Scots
3.4. Contrasting northern and southern Irish English
3.5. Interpreting features of Irish English
3.6. Ireland as a linguistic area

4. Urban English in Ireland
4.1. English in Dublin
4.1.1. Features of local Dublin English
4.1.2. Recent developments
4.1.3. The spread of the new Dublin accent
4.2. English in Belfast
4.2.1. Sources of Belfast English
4.3. English in Derry

5. Data categories for Irish English
5.1. Lexical sets for Irish English
5.2. Sample sentences used for A Sound Atlas of Irish English
5.3. Free text used for recordings
5.4. Word list for critical pronunciations in Dublin English

6. Extracts from sound files
6.1. The structure of file names
6.2. Statistics for sound files
6.3. Listening to sound files while reading
6.4. Vowels
6.4.1. Specific features of northern Irish English
6.5. Sonorants and approximants
6.5.1. Realisations of /l/
6.5.2. Realisations of /r/
6.5.3. Approximants
6.6. Obstruents [stops and fricatives]
6.7. Phonological processes
6.8. Intonation and stress patterns

III Processing software for atlas data

1. A Sound Atlas of Irish English
1.1. Java version
1.1.1. Statistics for the sound atlas
1.1.2. Lexical sets in the sound atlas
1.1.3. Listening to selected sound files
1.1.4. Additional material
1.1.5. Using other processing software
1.2. Windows version
1.2.1. Main programme
1.2.2. Command description

2. Further programmes
2.1. File Manager
2.2. Word Processor
2.3. Database Editor
2.4. Make Database
2.5. Report Form Generator

IV A Survey of Irish English Usage

1. Introduction

2. Processing software

3. The survey and Irish English
3.1. Analysis of questionnaire
3.2. Possible sources for features of Irish English
3.3. Questionnaire for A Survey of Irish English Usage

4. Java version of survey software

5. Tape-Recorded Survey of Hiberno-English Speech – Digital

V Technical notes

VI Glossary of computer terms

VII Timeline for Irish English

VIII Glossary for Irish English



   Legacies of Colonial English. Studies in Transported Dialects

Legacies of Colonial English

Studies in transported dialects

Ed. Raymond Hickey

Cambridge University Press, December 2004, 712 pages.

The main concern of this volume is to offer a re-assessment of dialect input in the formation of extraterritorial varieties of English and to examine further scenarios in which forms of English arose overseas, above all in South and South-East Asia. It begins with a consideration of the development of English in the British Isles with a review of key features from regional Britain, Scotland and Ireland which appear in more or less altered form at anglophone locations outside of Britain. There follow sections on the New World (9 chapters on Canada, the United States, the Caribbean) and the Southern Hemisphere (6 chapters on South Africa, the Southern Atlantic, Australia/New Zealand and Melanesia) as well as three chapters on English in Asia in which various issues from the area of transported dialects and the New Englishes are discussed by different authors.


Raymond Hickey

I Out of Britain

1) Dialects of English and their transportation
Raymond Hickey (Essen)

2) Scots and Scottish English
Caroline Macafee (Aberdeen)

3) Development and diffusion of Irish English
Raymond Hickey (Essen)

II The New World

1) The emergence of American English: Evidence from 17th-century records in New England
Merja Kytö (Uppsala)

2) The language of deported Londoners
Laura Wright (Cambridge)

3) Remnant dialects in the coastal United States
Walt Wolfram (North Carolina) and Natalie Schilling-Estes (Georgetown)

4) Verbal -s in the (African American) English Diaspora
Shana Poplack (Ottawa) and Sali Tagliamonte (York, England)

5) 'Canadian Dainty'. The rise and decline of Briticisms in mainland Canadian English
J. K. Chambers (Toronto)

6) The legacy of British and Irish English in Newfoundland
Sandra Clarke (St John's, Newfoundland)

7) The English dialect heritage of the Southern United States
Edgar Schneider (Regensburg)

8) Solving Kurath's Puzzle. Establishing the Antecedents of the American Midland Dialect Region
Michael Montgomery (South Carolina)

9) English dialect input to the Caribbean
Raymond Hickey (Essen)

III The Southern Hemisphere

1) English input to South Africa
Roger Lass (Capetown)

2) English transported to the South Atlantic Ocean: Tristan da Cunha
Daniel Schreier (North Carolina)

3) English on the Falklands
Andrea Sudbury (Colchester)

4) English input to Australia
Scott Kiesling (Pittsburgh)

5) English input to New Zealand
Elizabeth Gordon (Canterbury) and Peter Trudgill (Fribourg)

6) English input to the English-lexicon pidgins and creoles of the Pacific
Suzanne Romaine (Oxford)

IV English in Asia

1) Englishes in Asia and Africa: origin and structure
Raymond Hickey (Essen)

2) South Asian Englishes
Raymond Hickey (Essen)

3) South-East Asian Englishes
Raymond Hickey (Essen)

IV Appendixes

1) Checklist of dialect features
Raymond Hickey (Essen)

2) Glossary of terms
Raymond Hickey (Essen)

3) General references
Raymond Hickey (Essen)

4) Timeline for varieties of English
Raymond Hickey (Essen)

5) Maps of anglophone locations
Raymond Hickey (Essen)

   Motives for Language Change

Motives for Language Change

Ed. Raymond Hickey

Cambridge University Press, 2003, ix, 286 pages.

In a series of 15 chapters a variety of issues in language change are dealt with by different authors. The contributions are grouped thematically and include the following divisions 1) The phenomenon of language change, 2) Linguistic models and language change, 3) Grammaticalisation, 4) The social context for language change, 5) Contact-based explanations, 6) The typological perspective. The approaches employed by the contributors vary, some are model-oriented while others are largely data-driven, reflecting the eclectic nature of research in the field.


Raymond Hickey (Essen)

I The phenomenon of language change

1) On change in ‘E-language’
Peter Matthews (Cambridge)

2) Formal and functional motivation for language change
Frederick J. Newmeyer (University of Washington)

II Linguistic models and language change

3) Metaphors, models and language change
Jean Aitchison (Oxford)

4) Log(ist)ic And Simplistic S-curves
David Denison (Manchester)

5) Regular Suppletion
Richard Hogg (Manchester)

6) On not explaining language change: Optimality theory and the Great Vowel Shift April McMahon (Sheffield)

III Grammaticalisation

7) Grammaticalization: Cause or effect?
David Lightfoot (Maryland)

8) From subjectification to intersubjectification Elizabeth Traugott (Stanford)

IV The social context for language change

9) On the role of the speaker in language change
James Milroy (Michigan)

V Contact-based explanations

10) The quest for the most ‘parsimonious’ explanations: endogeny vs. contact revisited Markku Filppula (Joensuu)

11) Diagnosing prehistoric language contact
Malcolm Ross (Canberra)

12) The Ingenerate Motivation of Sound Change
Joseph C. Salmons & Gregory K. Iverson

13) How do dialects get the features they have? On the process of new dialect formation
Raymond Hickey (Essen)

VI The typological perspective

14) Understanding language history: the contribution of typology
Bernard Comrie (Leipzig)

15) Reanalysis and typological change
Raymond Hickey (Essen)

   Collecting Views on Language Change

Collecting views on language change

Special issue of Language Sciences, 2002 (24:1), 302 pages.

Raymond Hickey

1) The development of ‘strengthened’ possessive pronouns in English
Cynthia Allen

2) On the prehistory of Old English hlfædige
Alfred Bammesberger

3) Northern fronting and the north Lincolnshire merger of the reflexes of ME /u:/ and ME /o:/
Derek Britton

4) Sexist German - non-sexist English or non-sexist German - sexist English? Historical observations on a pragmatic question
Christiane Dalton-Puffer and Dieter Kastovsky

5) Inflections in the two manuscripts of Lagamon's Brut
Jacek Fisiak and Marcin Krygier

6) Servant or patron? Jacob Tonson and the language of deference and respect
Susan Fitzmaurice

7) Internal and external factors again: Word order change in Old English and Old Irish
Raymond Hickey

8) Corpus-provoked questions about negation in early Middle English
Margaret Laing

9) Exaptation and English stress
Chris McCully

10) Endogeny versus contact revisited: Aspectual busy in South African English
Rajend Mesthrie

11) Morphological case and word order in Old English
Susan Pintzuk

12) Fairly pretty or pretty fair? On the development and grammaticalisation of English downtoners
Matti Rissanen and Terttu Nevalainen

13) The Modal Elements maskie and mos in Cape Dutch
Paul Roberge

14) Of vowel shifts great, small, long and short
Herbert Schendl and Nikolaus Ritt

15) Middle French: When? What? Why?
John Charles Smith

16) Interpreting the Old and Middle English close vowels
Robert Stockwell and Donka Minkova

17) Robert Lowth and the strong verb system
Ingrid Tieken

18) Code-intermediate phenomena in medieval mixed-language business texts
Laura Wright

   A Source Book for Irish English

A Source Book for Irish English

Raymond Hickey

Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 2002, xii, 541 pages + CD-ROM.

Goto publishers' page at John Benjamins, Amsterdam

A whole range of references relating to Irish English in all its aspects are gathered together here and in the majority of cases annotations are supplied. The book also has a detailed introduction dealing the history of Irish English, the documentation available and contains an overview of the themes in Irish English which have occupied linguists working in the field. Various appendixes offer information on the history of Irish English studies and biographical notes on scholars from this area. All the bibliographical material is contained on the accompanying CD-ROM along with appropriate software for processing the databases and texts in which this material is contained. The databases are fully searchable, information can be exported at will and customised extracts can be created by users.


I An historical outline

Matters of terminology

External history of Irish English

 2.1 Initial settlement
 2.1.1 Spread of English
 2.1.2 The linguistic situation in medieval Ireland
 2.2 Renewed dominance of English
 2.2.1 Transplantation and transportation
 2.3 The eighteenth century
 2.3.1 Hedge schools
 2.3.2 The ascendancy
 2.4 The nineteenth century

English in the north of Ireland

 3.1 Emigration from Ulster

Documents for the first period

 4.1 Medieval period
 4.2 Manuscripts of the medieval period
 4.2.1 English texts
 4.2.2 French (Anglo-Norman) texts

Forth and Bargy

 5.1 Link with medieval Irish English

II Research themes

 1 Approaching the field
 2 The history of Irish English
 3 Retention versus contact
 4 Linguistic levels
 5 Varieties of Irish English
 6 Irish English as non-standard English
 7 Relationships abroad

III Annotated bibliography

1 English in Ireland

 1.1 A first orientation
 1.1.1 Questions of nomenclature
 1.1.2 Bibliographies of Irish English
 1.1.3 Linguistic surveys of Irish English

 1.2 Overviews and general works
 1.2.1 Overviews of Irish English
 1.2.2 Works with remarks on Irish English

 1.3 Regional and sociolinguistic studies
 1.3.1 Regional studies of Irish English
 1.3.2 The language of Dublin
 1.3.3 Sociolinguistic treatments

 1.4 The historical dimension
 1.4.1 Medieval Irish English
 1.4.2 The dialect of Forth and Bargy
 1.4.3 The early modern period Thomas Sheridan
 1.4.4 The nineteenth century

 1.5 Contact and borrowing
 1.5.1 Contact between Irish and English
 1.5.2 The influence of Irish on English
 1.5.3 The influence of English on Irish

 1.6 Linguistic levels
 1.6.1 The phonology of Irish English
 1.6.2 The morphology of Irish English
 1.6.3 Syntax of Irish English
 1.6.4 Tense, mood and aspect
 1.6.5 The lexicon of Irish English

 1.7 The language of literature
 1.7.1 General works
 1.7.2 Works on 'Stage Irish'
 1.7.3 The term 'Brogue'

 1.8 The language of individual authors
 1.8.1 Swift
 1.8.2 Synge
 1.8.3 O'Casey
 1.8.4 Joyce

 1.9 Non-linguistic studies
 1.10 The North of Ireland
 1.10.1 The history of English in Ulster
 1.10.2 Ulster Scots English
 1.10.3 General studies
 1.10.4 Individual descriptions
 1.10.5 Sociolinguistic studies
 1.10.6 The language of Belfast
 1.10.7 Lexical studies
 1.10.8 Non-linguistic works
 1.10.9 Works on Ulster Irish
 1.10.10 Dedicated collections

2 Extra-territorial varieties

 2.1 The Celtic regions
 2.1.1 Scotland General studies Scots Scottish lexicography Gaelic and English contact Norn
 2.1.2 Wales
 2.1.3 Manx English
 2.1.4 The South-West
 2.1.5 Dedicated collections

 2.2 Mainland England
 2.2.1 General
 2.2.2 Dialect studies
 2.2.3 Scouse
 2.2.4 Tyneside
 2.2.5 Dedicated collections

 2.3 Atlantic
 2.3.1 North America Immigration to the New World Canada Newfoundland United States Appalachia African American Vernacular English
 2.3.2 Caribbean Creoles
 2.3.3 Dedicated collections
 2.4 The Southern Hemisphere
 2.4.1 Africa and Asia
 2.4.2 Australia and New Zealand
 2.4.3 Dedicated collections

3 Additional languages

 3.1 The Celtic background
 3.1.1 Celtic
 3.1.2 Irish
 3.1.3 Scottish Gaelic
 3.1.4 Manx
 3.1.5 Welsh
 3.1.6 Cornish
 3.1.7 Breton
 3.1.8 Onomastics

 3.2 Minor languages in Irish history
 3.2.1 Norse
 3.2.2 Flemish
 3.2.3 Anglo-Norman
 3.2.4 Shelta, Polari and Romani

 3.3 Irish in contemporary Ireland
 3.3.1 Bilingualism
 3.3.2 Education
 3.3.3 Language planning

4 General reference

 4.1 The cultural and historical setting
 4.1.1 General
 4.1.2 The arts
 4.1.3 Geography
 4.1.4 Politics
 4.1.5 History

 4.2 Literature in Ireland
 4.2.1 The Irish tradition
 4.2.2 Writers and writings in English

IV Appendixes

 1 Journals
 2 Biographical notes
 3 Institutions, associations
 4 Conferences on Irish English
 5 Dates in the history of Irish English
 6 Outline of Irish history
 7 Glossary
 8 Maps

V Index

VI Retrieval software

Update for A Source Book for Irish English

The file accessible via the following link contains a number additional bibliographical items which have been collected since the Source Book for Irish English went to press. Because a bibliography is an open-ended matter, anyone interested in Irish English should keep an eye on this part of the website for new references to books or articles from the field of Irish English.

   Download update file (Source_Book_Update.rtf)

   Corpus Presenter. Software for Language Analysis

Corpus Presenter,     Software for Language Analysis

With a manual and A Corpus of Irish English as sample data

John Benjamins, Amsterdam and Philadelphia, 2003, 292 pp. + CD-ROM        

There is now a special website which is dedicated to Corpus Presenter. It contains all the information you need, for example about how to use the programme to greatest benefit, how to download updates, etc.

Click on this link: Corpus Presenter website

   Early Modern English Medical Texts

Corpus description and studies
Irma Taavitsainen and Päivi Pahta
Software by Raymond Hickey
John Benjamins, 2010

This project was initiated by a team of colleagues at the University of Helsinki and consists of a corpus of medical texts from the early modern period. It is a sequel to the corresponding corpus dealing with Middle English medical texts (see for details). For both projects I programmed adaptations of my general corpus-linguistic software, Corpus Presenter, see for further information).

Link to relevant section of publisher’s website:

   Testifying to Language and Life in Early Modern England

An electronic text edition of depositions 1560-1760
Merja Kytö, Peter Grund and Terry Walker
Software by Raymond Hickey
John Benjamins, 2011

A comprehensive collection of court depositions forms the basis for the current project undertaken by a team of researchers associated with the University of Uppsala. An adaptation of the Corpus Presenter software (see for further information) is supplied with the corpus to enable users to carry out powerful retrieval tasks quickly and easily.

The book with the CD containing the corpus along with the software for examining this is due to be published in May 2011.

Link to relevant section of publisher’s website: